Recently, domestically produced electric vehicles have received attention abroad, causing the number of electric tricycles placed on various foreign e-commerce platforms to continue to surge. Safety standards for electric tricycles and electric motorcycles vary from country to country. Suppliers and manufacturers need to understand the standards and regulations of the target market so that electric tricycles can meet local market requirements.
Technical requirements for inspection of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles
1. Appearance requirements for electric tricycle and electric motorcycle inspection
- The appearance of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles should be clean and tidy, all parts should be intact, and the connections should be firm.
- Cover parts of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles should be flat and integrated with even gaps and no obvious misalignment. The coating surface should be smooth, flat, uniform in color, and firmly bonded. There should be no obvious pits, spots, mottled colors, cracks, bubbles, scratches, or flow marks on the exposed surface. There should be no exposed bottom or obvious flow marks or cracks on the non-exposed surface.
- The coating surface of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles is uniform in color and should not have blackening, bubbling, peeling, rust, bottom exposure, burrs or scratches.
-The surface color of the plastic parts of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles is uniform, with no obvious scratches or unevenness.
- The welds of metal structural parts of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles should be smooth and even, and there should be no defects such as welding, false welding, slag inclusions, cracks, pores, and spatter on the surface. If there are welding nodules and welding slag higher than the working surface, Must be smoothed.
- The seat cushions of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles should have no dents, a smooth surface, and no wrinkles or damage.
-Electric tricycle and electric motorcycle decals should be flat and smooth, without bubbles, warping or obvious misalignment.
- The outer covering parts of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles should be flat, with smooth transitions, and no obvious bumps, scratches or scratches.
2. Basic requirements for inspection of electric tricycles and electric motorcycles
-Vehicle signs and placards
Electric tricycles and electric motorcycles should be equipped with at least one trademark or factory logo that can be permanently maintained and is consistent with the vehicle brand on an easily visible part of the front outer surface of the vehicle body.
-Main dimensions and quality parameters
a) The main dimensions and quality parameters should comply with the provisions of drawings and design documents.
b) Axle load and mass parameters: When the sidecar three-wheeled motorcycle is in an unloaded and fully loaded state, the wheel load of the sidecar should be less than 35% of the curb weight and total mass respectively.
c) Verified load: The maximum allowable total mass of a motor vehicle is determined based on the engine power, maximum design axle load, tire load-bearing capacity and officially approved technical documents, and then the minimum value is determined. For tricycles and motorcycles under no-load and full-load conditions, the ratio of the steering shaft load (or steering wheel load) to the vehicle's curb mass and total mass respectively should be greater than or equal to 18%;
The steering wheels (or steering handles) of tricycles and motorcycles should rotate flexibly without sticking. Motor vehicles should be equipped with steering limiting devices. The steering system should not interfere with other components in any operating position.
The maximum free rotation amount of tricycle and motorcycle steering wheels should be less than or equal to 35°.
The left or right turning angle of the steering wheels of tricycles and motorcycles should be less than or equal to 45°;
Tricycles and motorcycles should not deviate when driving on flat, hard, dry and clean roads, and their steering wheels (or steering handles) should not have any abnormal phenomena such as oscillation.
Tricycles and motorcycles drive on flat, hard, dry and clean cement or asphalt roads, transition from straight line driving along a spiral to a vehicle channel circle with an outer diameter of 25m within 5 seconds at a speed of 10km/h, and impose The maximum tangential force on the outer edge of the steering wheel should be less than or equal to 245 N.
The steering knuckle and arm, steering cross and straight tie rods and ball pins should be connected reliably, and there should be no cracks or damage, and the steering ball pin should not be loose. When the motor vehicle is modified or repaired, the cross and straight tie rods should not be welded.
The front shock absorbers, upper and lower connecting plates and steering handles of three-wheeled vehicles and motorcycles should not be deformed or cracked.
Electric motorcycles should be equipped with a speedometer, and the error of the speedometer indication value should comply with the graphic symbols of the specified control parts, indicators and signaling devices.
The horn should have a continuous sound function, and the horn performance and installation should comply with the specified indirect vision device.
-Roll stability and parking stability angle
When three-wheeled vehicles and three-wheeled motorcycles are unloaded and in a static state, the roll stability angle when tilting to the left and right should be greater than or equal to 25°.
Anti-theft devices should meet the following design requirements:
a) When the anti-theft device is activated, it should ensure that the vehicle cannot turn or move forward in a straight line. b) If a Category 4 anti-theft device is used, when the anti-theft device unlocks the transmission mechanism, the device should lose its locking effect. If the device operates by controlling the parking device, the vehicle engine shall be stopped while it operates. c) The key can only be pulled out when the lock tongue is fully opened or closed. Even if the key is inserted, it should not be in any intermediate position that interferes with engagement of the deadbolt.
The exterior of the motorcycle must not have any sharp parts facing outwards. Due to the shape, size, azimuth angle and hardness of these components, when a motorcycle collides or scrapes with a pedestrian or other traffic accident, it may cause physical damage to the pedestrian or driver. For cargo-carrying three-wheeled motorcycles, all accessible edges located behind the rear quarter panel, or, if there is no rear quarter panel, located at the rear of the transverse vertical plane passing 500mm from the point R of the rearmost seat, if the protruding height If it is not less than 1.5mm, it should be blunted.
It should be ensured that the driver is in the normal driving position and can operate the controller of the service braking system without leaving the steering wheel (or steering wheel) with both hands. Three-wheeled motorcycles (Category 1,) should be equipped with a parking brake system and a foot-controlled service brake system that controls the brakes on all wheels. The foot-controlled service brake system is: a multi-circuit service brake system. A braking system, or a linked braking system and an emergency braking system. The emergency braking system can be a parking brake system.
-Lighting and signaling devices
The installation of lighting and signaling devices should comply with regulations. The installation of lamps should be firm, intact and effective. They should not become loose, damaged, fail or change the direction of light due to vehicle vibration. All light switches should be firmly installed and switch freely, and should not be turned on or off by themselves due to vehicle vibration. The switch should be located for easy operation. The rear retro-reflector of an electric motorcycle should also ensure that a car headlight is illuminated 150m directly in front of the retro-reflector at night, and the reflected light of the reflector can be confirmed at the illumination position.
-Main performance requirements
10 min The maximum vehicle speed (V.), maximum vehicle speed (V.), acceleration performance, gradeability, energy consumption rate, driving range, and rated output power of the motor should comply with the relevant provisions of GB7258 and the product technical documents provided by the manufacturer.
Reliability requirements should comply with the requirements of the product technical documents provided by the manufacturer. If there are no relevant requirements, the following requirements can be followed. The reliability driving mileage is in accordance with the regulations. After the reliability test, the frame and other structural parts of the test vehicle shall not be damaged such as deformation, cracking, etc. The decline in the main performance technical indicators shall not exceed the technical conditions. The specified 5%, except for power batteries.
-Assembly quality requirements
Assembly should comply with the requirements of product drawings and technical documents, and no misassembly or missing installation is allowed; the manufacturer, model specifications, power, etc. of the supporting motor should comply with the requirements of the vehicle model's technical documents (such as product standards, product instruction manuals, certificates, etc.) ; Lubricating parts should be filled with lubricant according to the provisions of product drawings or technical documents;
Fastener assembly should be firm and reliable. The pretightening torque of important bolt connections should comply with the provisions of product drawings and technical documents. The moving parts of the control mechanism should be flexible and reliable, and should not be interfered with normal reset. The cover assembly should be firmly fixed and should not fall off due to vehicle vibration;
Sidecars, compartments, and cabs should be firmly installed on the vehicle frame and must not become loose due to vehicle vibration;
The doors and windows of a closed car should be well sealed, the doors and windows should be able to open and close easily and easily, the door locks should be strong and reliable, and should not open by themselves due to vehicle vibration;
The baffles and floors of the open car should be flat, and the seats, seat cushions and armrests should be installed firmly and reliably without looseness;
Symmetry and outer dimensions require that the height difference between the two sides of symmetrical parts such as steering handles and deflectors and the ground should not be greater than 10mm;
The height difference between the two sides of the symmetrical parts such as the cab and compartment of the electric three-wheel motorcycle from the ground should not be greater than 20mm;
The deviation between the center plane of the front wheel of an electric three-wheel motorcycle and the symmetrical center plane of the two rear wheels should not be greater than 20mm;
The overall dimensional tolerance of the entire vehicle should not be greater than ±3% or ±50mm of the nominal size;
Steering mechanism assembly requirements;
Vehicles should be equipped with steering limiting devices. The steering handle should rotate flexibly without any obstruction. When it rotates to the extreme position, it should not interfere with other parts. The steering column should have no axial movement;
The lengths of control cables, instrument flexible shafts, cables, brake hoses, etc. should have appropriate margins and should not be clamped when the steering handle is rotated, nor should they affect the normal operation of related parts;
It should be able to drive in a straight line on a flat, hard, dry and clean road without any deviation. There should be no oscillation or other abnormal phenomena on the steering handle when riding.
-Brake mechanism assembly requirements
The brakes and operating mechanisms should be adjustable, and the adjustment margin should not be less than one-third of the adjustment amount. The idle stroke of the brake handle and brake pedal should comply with the requirements of product drawings and technical documents; the brake handle or brake pedal should reach the maximum braking effect within three-quarters of the full stroke. When the force is stopped, the brake pedal will Motivation should disappear with it. There must be no self-braking during driving, except for electromagnetic braking caused by vehicle energy feedback.
-Transmission mechanism assembly requirements
The installation of the motor should be firm and reliable, and it should work normally. There should be no abnormal noise or jitter during operation. The transmission chain should run flexibly, with appropriate tightness and no abnormal noise. The sag should comply with the provisions of the product drawings or technical documents. The transmission belt of the belt transmission mechanism should run flexibly without jamming, slipping or loosening. The transmission shaft of the shaft transmission mechanism should run smoothly without abnormal noise.
-Assembly requirements for traveling mechanism
Both the circular runout and the radial runout of the end face of the rim in the wheel assembly should not be greater than 3mm. The tire model mark should comply with the regulations of GB518, and the depth of the pattern on the tire crown should be greater than or equal to 0.8mm. The spoke plate and spoke wheel fasteners are complete and should be tightened according to the pretightening torque specified in the technical documents. The shock absorbers should not get stuck or make abnormal noises while driving, and the stiffness of the left and right shock absorber springs should remain basically the same.
-Instrumentation and electrical equipment assembly requirements
Signals, instruments and other electrical equipment and switches should be installed reliably, intact and effective, and should not become loose, damaged or ineffective due to vehicle vibration during driving. The switch must not turn on and off by itself due to vehicle vibration. All electrical wires should be bundled, arranged neatly, and fixed and clamped. The connectors should be connected reliably and not loose. Electrical instruments should work normally, the insulation should be reliable, and there should be no short circuits. The batteries should have no leakage or corrosion. The speedometer should work properly.
-Safety protection device assembly requirements
The anti-theft device should be installed firmly and reliably and can be effectively locked. The installation of the indirect vision device should be firm and reliable, and its position should be effectively maintained. When pedestrians and others accidentally come into contact with the indirect vision device, it should have the function of mitigating the impact.
Post time: Feb-07-2024